Oliver Roick

A better fetch

I recently tried to make Fetch work with a REST API. Here’s what I found.

The WHATWG Fetch API is a replacement of XMLHttpRequest as the standard to retrieve resources across a network. Compared to XMLHttpRequest, Fetch provides a simplified and cleaner API that relies on promises instead of callbacks.

Its use is straightforward:

  .then((response) => {
    if (response.status >= 200 && response.status < 400) {
      return response.json()
    } else {
      return response.statusText

fetch returns a Promise containing a Response. The Response can be evaluated based on its status code. In the example above, we return the response body when the request was successful and the response status if not.

In this implementation, however, it is not possible to handle unsuccessful requests and process the response at the same time. When working with REST APIs, the response contains crucial details about the error. These details should be made available to the user.

Consider a form to register as a new user. The new user attempts to register with an existing username; something you cannot validate on client-side. After submitting the form via the API, the server responds with status code 400; the response contains details which user input caused the problem:

HTTP/1.1 400 OK
Content-Type: application/json

  "error": {
    "username": "Another user has already registered 
                 with this user name."

One could obviously return the error response using response.json() just like you would process a successful response. But there is no way to tell whether the request was successful or has failed in the following .then(), other than parsing the response itself. And we loose response metadata, such as the status code. If the server responds with status 401 Unauthorized the client can handle that and redirect the user to a login page. This is very difficult to achieve if you don’t have response metadata available.

If the Promise was rejected whenever the request failed and then response content and some metadata were returned instead of another Promise, the error could be handled in the Promise’s rejection handler.

    (success) => console.log(success),
    (error) => console.log(error.code, error.content)

So I went ahead and built better-fetch. It’s a tiny library that behaves as described above. Consider it as an experiment for now, as I have yet to use this approach in production.